tl;dr:"We just don't have enough experience with early versions of ambitious projects to know how to respond to them. We judge them as we would judge more finished work, or less ambitious projects." Optimism and imagination become urgent.
tl;dr:"Schools train us to win by hacking bad tests" so we can get good grades, but not learn. Good grades reward us in obvious ways. This mindset filters into the startup world, founders want to hack the system. This is correcting itself and that makes Paul optimistic.
tl;dr:Collectors of old bus tickets "have an obsessive interest" in the their field. It's not rationale, nor driven by market forces. Paul argues that this passion is the sprout of what we consider "genius", and here he philosophizes how to leverage it into your career.