tl;dr:John came up with nine "levels" of work, "ranging from very specific, to very general." calling them Mandate Levels, "to capture the idea of a sphere of authority and autonomy." He discusses how they operate here.
tl;dr:Trust is essential between team members and is a result of previous decisions made between team members. Second, language used by PMs is essential - John uses various scenarios to illustrate this.
tl;dr:The time developers spend coding in a 40 hour work week is relatively small. Hence, limiting work in progress, the scope of work, and handoffs between teams can increase flow and value in product development. The key is to focus on cadence and flow.